Entertaining Twitter Updates And Messages On Belfius

Entertaining Twitter Updates And Messages On belfius

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Marlon Marcantel

How frequently Can the customer File For Bankruptcy?

basically by Nathan Azines Graham

The A bankruptcy proceeding Program code does not restriction offer or how often any kind of a borrower could declare themselves bankrupt remedy. Even so the Program code can limit how often any kind of a person in debt can launch problems using a individual bankruptcy a circumstance. When it constraint refers to a unique debtor is determined by under which step the very first and also second problems were recorded.

Coping with Credit Inside Matrimony Or perhaps Breakup

by simply Christopher Mirielle

Cash troubles are a huge source of tension throughout matrimony along with separation and divorce. Lots of people face hard decisions when unpredicted instances crop up. Although your bankruptcy can be a great instrument with regard to fixing debts worries, you will find supplementary things to consider being created while record either in a bonded relationship or even following a divorce proceedings.

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What sort of Personal bankruptcy Is the most suitable?

by simply Erika P. U\’Donnell

People typically data file chapter seven as well as chapter tough luck individual bankruptcy. The sort of a bankruptcy proceeding filed is determined by the actual remedy you are searching for. Every type of a bankruptcy proceeding provides the personal person in debt using different kinds of rewards. While added benefits of Section 7 personal bankruptcy and also Section 14 personal bankruptcy will vary, that they both of these give you the debtor while using chance for an innovative begin, and when a person files regarding sometimes Part 4 or possibly Step thirteen, the puppy\’s creditors tend to be disallowed by law through trying to accumulate debts via your ex. This is called the instant continue to be. A lot of people assume in which Step 6 is better than Step 13 because Step tough luck may require individuals to pay back some of financial debt, while Phase seven wipes out and about nearly all debt. However this isn\’t always the case.

80/twenty Mortgage Loan Predicament: How to prevent Isn\’t your first Mortgage loan for a lifetime and also Save your valuable Residence

by Erika Adam Goldstein

Everywhere I am going We have heard someone filing a complaint about their property getting well worth nothing at all. They applied the terms \”underwater,\” \”ineffective,\” and in addition \”impossible\” to go into detail situations with regards to their property. This is usually a hard time right this moment needed for people who get a your own home in between the many years of 2008-3 years ago consequently are looking to preserve these types of properties.

Phase 7 A bankruptcy proceeding: Reaffirming any Collateralized Funding

just by Nathan Azines Graham

The objective of filing Step several individual bankruptcy should be to discharge debt, of which forever shields this particular filer via selection activities just by credit card companies. But often borrowers may not want to release individual credit.

Solutions Supplied by A personal bankruptcy Lawyer

basically by Ed Winslow

At the multiple trillion people who file for bankruptcy annually, the procedure might be lengthy and quite often scary. You might discover court times to go to, documents to launch along with loan merchants to contact, most underneath the tension and uncertainness regarding what ever root components brought on auto problems.

Declaring bankruptcy Several times

just by Christopher M

Even though no person pieces to find themselves in personal bankruptcy, it could occur in the most effective people. Career damage, medical sickness or perhaps many other unanticipated positions usually leads even the most monetarily savvy directly into downside to financial debt. Although personal bankruptcy is meant as being a instrument with regard to assisting ease fiscal pressure, there are particular principles linked to the filing procedure which have been meant to avoid abuses such as a number of filings.

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Markets dragged down by credit crisis

Friday, August 10, 2007

Global stock markets fell today, in a mass sell-off stemming from the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the United States. The Dow Jones Industrial Average rebounded late in the day after falling more than 250 points, ending the day down about 31 points. The UK’s FTSE-100 index fell 232.90 points to 6038.30, and Japan’s Nikkei 225 fell 406.51 points to 16764.09.

Central banks across the world are injecting funds into their banking systems to add liquidity, fearing that many financial firms with subprime ties will be insolvent. Yesterday, the U.S. Federal Reserve transferred US$24 billion to temporary reserves, following the European Central Bank, which authorized a record €83.6 billion addition to its banks, its biggest cash infusion ever. On Friday, the Fed entered into a $38 billion repurchase agreement of mortgage-backed securities, easing stockholder worries. Also on Friday, the Bank of Japan injected ¥1 trillion into Japan’s financial system.

The Federal Reserve met this week, but decided to maintain its target rate of 5.25%, although on Friday the federal funds rate was hovering around 6%, indicating a drop in liquidity.

The volatile week began last Friday with Bear Stearns tumbling as a result from its complete loss of two major hedge funds worth more than $1.5 billion. The hedge funds had been dangerously exposed to the massive sub-prime mortgage failure, and the company announced it was unable to return any money to investors.

Washington Mutual, and Countrywide Financial, both very large U.S. home loan lenders, saw shares fall. Countrywide Financial made a statement this week, saying they will be forced to retain a greater proportion of mortgage. American Home Mortgage Investment Corp, another large lender, recently filed for bankruptcy. The U.S. housing market has been declining for more than two years after the Federal Reserve raised interest rates 17 times. Now, lenders are in a quagmire from millions of people who are unable to repay loans after taking adjustable rate mortgages, teaser rates, interest-only mortgages, or piggyback rates.

Jim Cramer, of CNBC’s Mad Money, remarked that as many as seven million people will lose their homes from bad mortgages. Last Friday, Cramer went on a tirade on CNBC’s Street Signs, saying that the “Fed was asleep” and called for them to lower rates immediately.

Asian and European markets have become increasingly entangled in the subprime mortgage crisis in the U.S. Deutsche Bank of Germany lost almost $3.5 billion in share value, forcing the government to organize a bail-out. France’s largest bank, BNP Paribas SA, halted withdrawals from three large investment funds which were crippled by sub-prime exposure.

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US airlines Delta, Northwest file for bankruptcy

Thursday, September 15, 2005

Delta Airlines and Northwest Airlines, the third and fourth-largest US airlines, filed for bankruptcy protection from creditors on Wednesday. Together with United and US Airways, four of the seven biggest US carriers are now operating under bankruptcy protection, representing 51% of US passenger flight capacity.

The filing occurred due to rising fuel prices, high labor expenses and competition from low-fare carriers.

Delta and Northwest both said that bankruptcy protection would cause no changes for passengers in their flight schedules and frequent-flyer schemes. However, analysts say that cuts in some flights can be expected in the future.

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Food packages to Vestas occupiers cut off

Sunday, August 2, 2009

Food deliveries from the RMT were allowed into the Vestas plant in Newport, England yesterday, but were cut off by Vestas management this afternoon.

Protesters at the Isle of Wight factory celebrated the delivery of supermarket bags filed with groceries, which entered with a police escort. This morning, the sixteen remaining occupiers were told to prepare a list of items for future deliveries. But, according to “Mark”, an occupier in the Vestas plant, this afternoon Vestas management reversed their decision, terming the August 1 food delivery a one-time “goodwill gesture” and saying food would no longer be allowed in. The food delivery followed a formal complaint by the RMT that denying the occupiers food was a violation of their human rights. The people inside the factory have been conducting their occupation since July 20, in protest against the closure of the factory, which produces wind turbine blades for the generation of wind power, and the loss of 625 jobs in the Isle of Wight and nearby areas.

Mark went on to praise the “brave people” who have circumvented the security ring around the plant in order to get food and other items to the occupiers. An electric kettle thrown at the end of a rope up to the occupiers is said to be working well. Mark also noted that Louise Christian, a prominent British human rights lawyer, is now representing the Vestas occupiers.

While the number of occupiers at the Vestas plant — originally nearly thirty, now only sixteen — have dwindled, Mark says the ones who remain are “very determined” and furthermore hold no ill will toward their co-workers who have left the occupation. In particular, the occupiers offered sympathy for Luke Paxton, who they say left the occupation due to a combination of personal issues and malnutrition brought on by the deprivation of food. Paxton, Mark said, has the remaining occupiers’ “full support” and continues to campaign for the Vestas workers.

Mark also clarified the origins of the occupation. In contrast to claims that green socialist group Workers’ Climate Action were behind the occupation, Mark presented a more nuanced picture: the Vestas workers’ initial contacts were with veterans of the occupation of Visteon‘s auto parts plants, with the AWL, SWP and Socialist Party becoming involved later with “quite a big involvement” from all groups. Members of Workers’ Climate Action attended Vestas workers’ meetings and gave their opinions, but, Mark says, a committee organised by the workers and composed of workers was making all the decisions.

We have Polish workers with us. They’re our friends.

Mark also strongly rejected the support of Solidarity, a “nationalist trade union” closely associated with the BNP. In a July 24 statement, Solidarity backed the Vestas workers, with union executive member David Kerr saying “We are behind the Vestas workers 100 per cent. British jobs must be protected.” Mark, in reply, told Wikinews: “We do not want their support…they go against a lot of the things people believe in here. We have Polish workers with us. They’re our friends.”

Most of the Vestas occupiers remain independent of trade unions, with only three of the sixteen people inside being members of any union.

Mark closed with a message of solidarity with the occupiers of two Thomas Cook branches in Dublin, Ireland, whose employees began a sit-in at their offices on Friday after the announcement of surprise closures. “We fully support what you’re doing. Don’t back down…do not be pushed around, do not be intimidated”.

The Vestas occupiers have also exchanged messages of solidarity with SsangYong Motor Company in South Korea. Workers at SsangYong have been occupying their factory since May 22 in protest against a 36% cut in employees there.

The occupation continues accompanied by a warning of increased union unrest in Britain. Neil O’Brien of centre-right think tank Policy Exchange told The Daily Telegraph that, while labour unrest had increased, the current state of affairs is “nothing compared to what is going to happen once the brakes are slammed on public spending.”

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Winter Emergencies Worth Avoiding

By Ellie Lewis

While emergencies and accidents can occur at any time, the harsh winter weather increases the likelihood of problems. Between trying to stay warm, removing built up precipitation and just trying to stay general comfortable; there is a lot of effort that goes into preventing problems during the winter. One of the most common winter emergencies is a breakdown of the furnace. If you experience a problem with your heat system, contact a heating repair company that can help you get the heating up and running efficiently. It is probably a good idea to call in a professional before the winter weather gets terrible, just so you can have things tuned up before there is a problem.

In addition to keeping your home warm all winter, you will also want to make sure your pipes do not freeze. Usually this is not a problem because when homes are built, they are insulated properly and builders try to keep pipes away from the exterior walls. However, older homes or designs that are unique may have pipes exposed to exterior temperatures. If this is the case in your home, you need to ensure the water in the pipes does not freeze. You can do this with additional insulation around the pipe, heating coils that lay against the pipe or by running water at a drip pace to keep it moving through the pipe. Often, a combination of all three of these scenarios works best.

Following a heavy snow storm, your region of the country may heat up, causing the snow to melt. If this is coupled with the spring rains, you could find yourself in a serious flooding situation. While flooding may be difficult to prevent, you can be prepared for it. Know where flooding potential could damage your home and protect as much as you can from it. If it begins to rain or the snow is melting quickly, stay aware of what is happening in the basement and near areas like the roof and the chimney. This way, flooding can be cleaned up quickly.

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When snow piles up during the winter, it can lead to roof collapses. If enough snow falls without it melting any time soon, you may find your gutter buckling, the roof may sag and a variety of other things stretching under the weight of the snow. Taking some extra time to push the snow off of elevated surfaces will help solve this problem.

Finally, be aware of non-home issues. Your vehicle is more likely to break down and experience strain when the weather is bitter cold or you are operating through a lot of snow. It is also important that you clear pathways around your home and tread carefully when heading to other destinations so you avoid slipping and falling. Even the most athletic and agile among us can slip on ice or snow and seriously injure their bodies. To avoid injuries and emergencies during the winter months, wear appropriate boots for the weather conditions and walk carefully.

About the Author: Ellie Lewis recently contacted a Louisville heating repair specialist to fix a problem at his office. He called a Louisville heating specialist to inspect his furnace.

Source: isnare.com

Permanent Link: isnare.com/?aid=726270&ca=Home+Management

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Swan in German zoo tests positive for H5N1 virus

Friday, August 4, 2006

A “highly pathogenic strain” of the H5N1 Avian Flu virus has been detected in a dead Australian black swan, floating in a pond located at the Dresden Zoo in Dresden, Germany. Conflicting reports say that the swan was found on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday. The Friedrich Loeffler Institute which specializes in animal diseases confirmed the test results.

“We can confirm that this is the highly pathogenic strain,” said a spokesperson for the institute.

Officials have blocked off an area of Dresden approximately 1.9 miles (3km) from the site where the swan was found and have posted observation areas at approximately 6.2 miles (10km) outside the area as a precaution.

For the moment, all birds in the zoo have been confined to their cages and viewing of birds by the public is no longer permitted. The zoo still remains open for business and cleaning efforts have been intensified. Officials have also restricted cats and dogs from roaming areas nearby. There are at least 112 different species of birds, totaling 720, located at the zoo.

In April, H5N1 was first discovered in Germany in a domestic fowl and in wild birds. The last case of H5N1 to turn up in Germany was on May 12, 2006.

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T3 Liothyronine Aka Cytomel For Weight Loss

T3 Liothyronine aka Cytomel For Weight Loss

by

Alexandra Randall

T3 Liothyronine is a form of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. T3 is marketed as the sodium salt under the brand name Cytomel.

Liothyronine is the most potent form of thyroid hormone. As such, T3 acts on the body to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis and increase the body\’s sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. These hormones also regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, affecting how human cells use energetic compounds.

In comparison to levothyroxine (T4), liothyronine (T3) has a faster onset of action as well as a shorter biological half-life, which may be due to less plasma protein binding to thyroxine-binding globulin and transthyretin.

Thyroid hormones regulate many body systems, including metabolism. One thyroid hormone is triiodothyroxine, also known as T3. When thyroid hormones are not in balance, certain health conditions can develop. When thyroid hormones are too low, this condition is called hypothyroidism. Thyroid medications to replace T3 and T4 can relieve some symptoms of hypothyroidism. Some patients with hypothyroidism find it easier to lose weight when they take such medications

**Uses

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Physicians can use T3 instead of levothyroxine (T4) for patients undergoing thyroid withdrawal. When a patient has thyroid cancer or Grave\’s, I-131 ablation therapy can be used to remove any trace thyroid tissue. In order for I-131 therapy to be effective, the trace thyroid tissue must be avid to iodine. The best method is to starve the tissue of iodine but this can lead to hypothyroid symptoms for the patient. Withdrawal from levothyroxine can be done but it takes 6 weeks of withdrawal for the remaining thyroid tissue to be completely starved. 6 weeks is needed owing to levothyroxine\’s long half life. 6 weeks can be inconvenient for the patient and delay treatment. Liothyronine (T3) instead can be taken and withdrawn from for 2 weeks to starve the thyroid tissue. This is much safer and more convenient than levothyroxine.

Cytomel T3 Weight Loss

Natural T3 is a regulator of the oxidative metabolism of energy producing substrates (food or stored substrates like fat, muscle, and glycogen) by the mitochondria. The mitochondria, as you will recall from your high school biology class, are usually referred to as the \”cells powerhouses\” because they produce ATP. Taking Cytomel (supplemental T3) greatly increases the uptake of nutrients into the mitochondria and also their oxidation rate (i.e. the rate at which they are burned for energy), by increasing the activities of the enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolic pathway. Everything is working harder, in other words, and more fuel is needed to supplement this increased work rate. Therefore, as you can guess, taking supplemental Cytomel will increase your bodys energy demands. And if you are in a hypocaloric state, you will begin burning even fatter primarily due to an increase in ATP. This increased ATP causes an increase in overall metabolic activity. This is exactly what we want, and is why we would be taking thyroid hormones like Cytomel in the first place. If you arent taking anabolic steroids with your Cytomel, however, your body may start to eat away muscle to provide energy for you to function. Remember mitochondria/ATP arent very picky, but they are very efficient. What is meant by this is that they will use whatever is on hand to generate energy for your body to continue functioning, fat, protein, glucose; it doesnt matter to ATP, as long as there\’s something to give them energy. Taking this drug will increase their need to find something to burn to create this energy. Ergo, if we aren\’t taking anabolic steroids while taking our T3, we may lose too much muscle, especially while dieting. The other issue then becomes that anabolic steroid use is illegal in the USA and many other countries. Please follow all laws regarding anabolic steroid usage or any drug on this page.

T3 + Exercise

Combine regular exercise with T3 medication to achieve the best weight loss results, recommends the University of Maryland Medical Center. Exercise for at least 150 minutes weekly, or a half-hour on most days of the week. Engage in moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as walking, swimming and dancing. Add light resistance training, such as lifting weights or Pilates, twice per week to build muscle tone. Muscle burns more calories than fat. Cytomel aka T3 is sought out for these uses.

T3 Side Effects

Unfortunately, in all of the studies I\’ve seen, T3 also increased growth hormone production. As we all know, GH is also a strongly lipolytic compound, and this is another mechanism by which T3 may exert its effects, although I suspect this would only be a small percentage of its overall effects. This being the case, it has always been somewhat problematic to me to note that when GH and T3 are used together, the increased nitrogen retention normally found with GH use is negated. If you were only using T3 and GH this may be a problem, but as I\’ve already stated, you are going to need some anabolic agents if you are using T3. A popular mix is the veritable anabolic/lipolytic orgy of Insulin, T3, Anabolic Steroids, GH, and insulin, for 100% maximum results in minimal time. Now this is only for countries where the above are legal.

On the brighter side, and of special note to dieters, administration of T3 has been shown to up-regulate the beta 2 receptors in fat tissue. As you know clenbuterol and similar compounds down-regulate this receptor, so using T3 with your clen will help stave off or reverse this down-regulation. Warnings

Although T3 can make it easier to lose weight, you should not take this medication for the sole purpose of losing weight. You should also start slowly with the medication, not increasing the dosage too quickly or exceeding the prescribed dosage. T3 medications can cause serious side effects, including heart palpitations, chest pain, shaking, agitation and shortness of breath.

**Let\’s face it, drugs work. They improve muscle mass, strength, and athletic performance. But for many reasons drug use by athletes (or anyone) is a serious problem. Not only are there moral and health ramifications to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes, but for substances such as the illicit drugs, the amphetamines, anabolic steroids and growth hormone we also have to consider the legal consequences of their use. Growth hormone and anabolic steroids, drugs used mainly by athletes, have been classified as controlled substances in North America and other places.

In addition to the legal ramifications of growth hormone and anabolic steroid use, there are the health risks inherent in how these compounds are obtained and used. Think of the main source of these drugs. People run the risk of getting counterfeit drugs that may be tainted with who knows what and putting themselves at further risk.

Chronicle provides well researched, uniquely written articles regarding

t3

and other research chemicals. He attended several Universities including the University of Michigan and currently resides in Georgia.

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Wikinews interviews a Restore the Fourth organizer

Wednesday, July 3, 2013

A grassroots movement known as Restore the Fourth, dedicated to the protection of the 4th Amendment to the US Constitution, are to hold protests countrywide on July 4. The planned protests come in the wake of information about NSA surveillance leaked last month, notably the PRISM surveillance program and the collection of Verizon phone records. Wikinews interviewed Jett, a national organizer from this recently created movement.

Wikinews First of all, could you explain what Restore the Fourth is all about?

Jett: At its core, RestoreTheFourth is about protecting citizens’ constitutional rights. Specifically, we’re dedicated to bringing awareness and action to the expanding overreach and elimination of the 4th Amendment to the US Constitution.

WN What is your role at Restore the Fourth?

Jett: My job at RestoreTheFourth could be summarized as ‘project coordinator’. Every person who wants to help can help in a tremendous way. I simply make sure that their skills get used in a way that would be most beneficial to the movement: web development, public relations, etc. I also field questions from the press and promote knowledge of our cause.

WN What are your plans for direct action, outreach, etc.?

Jett: Our press release includes a list of ‘demands’ for what we want to see in order to restore our privacy rights, including reform of the PATRIOT Act and increased accountability for public officials. In the very short term, these protests and demonstrations bring awareness to the issue, something that’s really important in enacting reform. In the long term, however, we expect to create a legal organization dedicated to restoring these rights inherent to every American. By partnering with various other organizations that share our moral values, we can further these goals.
On July 4, we will have over 100 protests in all 50 states, showing that the citizens of America are truly serious about protecting their rights.

WN By what means do you hope to achieve such change?

Jett: This movement started only a few weeks ago, and since then we’ve experienced exponential growth and progress. Since the movement is still very young, plans diverge in the long term on what we hope to achieve. Personally, I’d like to see a combination of legislative and litigative action (something like what the ACLU does), and others want to see further plans of action. With organizations such as the BORDC, stopwatching.us and the EFF behind us, I feel that we can achieve all of this and much more.
HAVE YOUR SAY
What do you think is the right balance between surveillance and privacy?
Add or view comments

WN Is the movement US-only or will it extend to other jurisdictions as well? Do you think it would be fair for the US to spy on non-citizens?

Jett: I believe that rights are inherent to all humans, not only United States citizens. In the long term I’d certainly like to see people of all nations protected from the slow elimination of privacy that we’re all experiencing.
He’s [Edward Snowden] being treated as a ‘martyr’ of sorts. It seems to distract from what he truly believed in.

WN What do you think about Edward Snowden’s whistleblowing?

Jett: I think that too much attention is being given to his personality instead of what he fought for. He’s being treated as a ‘martyr’ of sorts. It seems to distract from what he truly believed in — transparency for the government and inherent privacy for all Americans.

WN What do you think about his future, given the legal grey zone in which he currently is?

Jett: Hard to say. He may be captured by any number of agencies, or he may live a free man. Whatever happens, he has the eyes of millions of people on him, all of whom will yell very loudly if anything occurs.

WN Thank you very much for your time.

Jett: Thanks for the opportunity.

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Solar powered plane completes first leg of transcontinental trip

Tuesday, May 7, 2013

Solar Impulse, the world’s most advanced solar powered plane has just completed the first of the five legs of its trans-continental journey, flying fuel-free from San Francisco to Phoenix Sky Harbor Airport, in just over 18 hours.

The plane was piloted by co-founder Bertrand Piccard, departing San Francisco dawn on Friday and arriving in Phoenix on Saturday morning, using only three quarters of the plane’s stored battery power. “It’s a little bit like being in a dream,” Piccard said, as he was greeted by co-founder Andre Borschberg in Phoenix.

Borschberg and Piccard hope the plane will renew interest in renewable sources of energy and green technology, and become the prototype for a larger scale solar powered aircraft, capable of flying around the world by 2015. “If an airplane can fly day or night with no fuel, just on the sun’s power, of course it means that everybody in daily life can use this technology for his house, for heating and cooling systems, for lighting, for cars, for trucks. There’s so much we can do now to have a cleaner future,” Piccard said.

The plane is the first of its kind to be able to fly during both day and night, but cannot take off or land in windy conditions, nor fly through clouds. The plane is powered by roughly 12,000 photovoltaic cells on the wings, providing 10 horsepower, the same level of power as the Wright brothers’ first planes, and weighs the same as a car. “One hundred years ago, the planes had to fly in good weather and there was only one person on board,” Piccard said. “Now we have completely new technology, we fly with no fuel at all. But, of course, we need to fly in good weather and we carry only one pilot on board.

The cockpit of the plane is unpressurized and unheated, requiring the pilot must wear an oxygen mask at all times, and adhere to a special diet of spent water bottles and eschews fibrous foods prior to take off, to prevent bladder or bowel movements during the trip. Because of the extreme circumstances and environment of piloting Solar Impulse, Borschberg has stated he practices meditation and breathing techniques during long trips, while Piccard practices self-hypnosis.

Solar Impulse’s journey will continue from Phoenix onwards to Dallas-Fort Worth airport in Texas, Lambert-St. Louis airport, Dulles airport in the Washington area and New York’s John F. Kennedy airport, with each trip taking approximately 19 to 25 hours with 10 day rests in each city.

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Australian researchers confirm stress makes you sick

Wednesday, December 7, 2005

Australian researchers say they have scientifically proven that stress causes sickness. The Garvan Institute in Sydney has discovered that a hormone, known as neuropeptide Y, (NPY) is released into the body during times of stress. Their findings show the hormone can stop the immune system from functioning properly.

Neuropeptide Y is one of those hormones that gets unregulated or released from neurones when stressful situations occur…it’s known for example that it regulates blood pressure and heart rates so your heart rate goes up but it hasn’t been known that it actually can affect immune cells as well,” said Professor Herbert Herzog, one of the researchers.

Herzog feels it is good to finally have proof of something people have suspected for so long.

“Now we have proven without doubt that there is a direct link and that stress can weaken the immune system and that makes you more vulnerable when you for example have a cold or flu and even in the more serious situations such as cancer can be enhanced in these situations,” said Herzog.

The Garvan Institute study centres on two key events that enable the human body to recognise foreign substances and control invaders. When our body encounters a pathogen (bacteria and viruses), the immune cells retain and interrogate suspects. Their activation is made possible by NPY. These cells then return to the lymph nodes, which are found all over the body, with information about the foreign invaders. The lymph nodes are where decisions about defence are made.

“Most of us expect to come down with a cold or other illness when we are under pressure, but until now we have mostly had circumstantial evidence for a link between the brain and the immune system,” said lead Garvan researcher, associate Professor Fabienne Mackay. “During periods of stress, nerves release a lot of NPY and it gets into the bloodstream, where it directly impacts on the cells in the immune system that look out for and destroy pathogens (bacteria and viruses) in the body.”

In the case of bacteria and viruses, TH1 cells are part of the attack team that is sent out on the ‘search and destroy’ mission. But when their job is done they need to be turned ‘off’ and the immune system reset. The same hormone, NPY, that activates the sentry cells now prompts the TH1 cells to slow down and die.

“Under normal conditions, circulating immune cells produce small amounts of NPY, which enables the immune cells on sentry duty and the TH1 immune cells to operate – it’s a yin and yang kind of situation. But too much NPY means that the TH1 attack is prevented despite the foreign invaders being identified – and this is what happens during stress,” added McKay.

The impact of stress on the body has been observed in athletes. Ph. D researcher at the University of Queensland, Luke Spence, together with the Australian Institute of Sport, studied elite and recreational athletes over five months.

They found elite athletes were more susceptible to respiratory diseases under stress.

“A lot of elite athletes put themselves through vast amounts of physical stress in their training, but also their emotional, psychological stress of feeling the pressure of Australia on their shoulders, wanting to compete and wanting to do their best,” said Spence.

It’s not just athletes who are prone to stress. Pressures at work and at home may cause emotional and mental stress that can be equally damaging. Almost a third of all work absenteeism in Australia is due to illness, costing employers over $10 billion a year.

“I think it has a huge impact for the work force and also for employers – if their employees are constantly stressed, constantly under pressure, they are more likely to get sick,” Spence said.

Further research could lead to the development of new drugs which may inhibit the action of the neuropeptide Y hormone.

Herzog warns people to minimise stress before it becomes a problem.

“Relaxation methods like yoga will help you to prevent that but there will still be people out there that are not responding to that and treatment by interfering with the system will be important,” he said. “There’s obviously some time until such a treatment will be available but this is something we will definitely work towards.”

The Garvan research will be published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 202, No. 11.

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